Re Thinking the Public Toilet of Dhaka City: An Adaptable Prototype Design Solution to Improve the Existing Situation

Authors

  • Syeda Faeza Hasan Samford University Bangladesh, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh
  • Farjana Rahman Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208, Bangladesh

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15415/cs.2021.91001

Keywords:

Public Toilets, Existing Problems, Demand, Design Strategy, Modular Prototype, Dhaka city

Abstract

Dhaka is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world with a population of 21 million. With the constantly rising inhabitants, this urbanizing hub officially only has 122 public toilets, and in reality, most of them are not functional (Sanyal, November 05, 2016). Different studies also suggested that current situations of the public toilets in the city are unusable and unhygienic. Apart from a few good ones, most toilets have filthy floors, inadequate lighting and ventilation, and unbearable odor of human waste. Although unhygienic open defecation by men is a common scene in the city, for the woman it is not an option. While the city plans to construct a few, there still will be a huge need for public toilets to meet the demand of the vast population. It is critical to realize the challenges existing and evolving from the forbidding public hygiene situation and the lack of proper public infrastructure. Understanding the user group is crucial as modern and costly toilets end up being rejected than being used. Thus the paper tries to address the problems and suggests design strategies to achieve a feasible design solution for a sustainable public toilet that supports and empowers communal hygiene. The contribution of this paper is not only to promote a design solution but how this infrastructure can integrate with the surrounding urban context. A modular prototype is proposed which is adaptable, feasible, cost-effective, easy to erect, and can be plugged into any corner of the city. Rethinking public toilets as an adaptable prototype is not only about providing proper sanitation but also encouraging people about hygiene education, awareness, and innovation. The design is conceptualized as a prefabricated self-sustainable modular unit that can be altered, increased, or decreased as per the necessity of the surrounding area. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Afacan, Y., & Afacan, S.O. (2011). Rethinking social inclusivity: design strategies for cities. Urban Design and Planning 164(2), 93-105.

Ahamad, R. (2019). Dhaka’s hygiene crises threaten public health. Dhaka : New Age Bangladesh.

Ahmed, M.F. November 19, 2019). World Toilet Day 2019: 53 public toilets for a city of 2 crore people. The Daily Star. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/city/news/world-toilet-day-2019-53-public-toilets-city-2-crore-people-1829056

Aka, A.M. (November 28, 2019). A clean review of Dhaka’s public toilets. The Daily Star. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/shout/news/clean-reviewdhakas-public-toilets-1832596

Akipek, F.O., & Kozikoglu, N. (2007). Prototypes in Architectural Education: As Instruments of Integration in the Digital Era. METU JFA, 24(2), 169-178.

Amin, M.A. (October 14, 2018). Dhaka remains the world’s most densely populated city. Retrieved on May 02, 2019 from https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/dhaka/2018/10/14/dhaka-remains-the-world-s-mostdensely-populated-city

Anam, T. (2015). Bangladesh’s Very Public Toilet Crisis. s.l. : Newyork Times.

Bichard, J., Hanson, J., & Greed, C. (2003). Access to the built environment - Barriers, Chains and Missing Links: review. London : London University College.

Chandan, M.S.K (October 14, 2016). Beyond Flush and Forget. The Daily Star. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/star-weekend/spotlight/beyond-flushand-forget-1298203

Deininger, M., Daly, S.R., Sienko, K.H., Lee, J.C., & Kaufmann, E.E. (2019). Investigating prototyping approaches of Ghanaian novice designers. Design Science, 5(e6), 1-36. https://doi.org/10.1017/dsj.2019.5

Farhin, November 19, 2017) Women suffer the most from a lack of usable public toilets in Dhaka. Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/dhaka/2017/11/19/women-sufferlack-usable-public-toilets-dhaka

Habib, S.B. (July 26, 2018). Solving The Public Toilet Problem In Bangladesh, One Toilet At A Time: An Interview With

Farhana Rashid, Founder and CEO, Bhumijo. Dhaka : Future Startup.

Hasan, M.M., Basak, K., & Rayhan, K. (2018). Roadside urination and public sanitation facilities in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Civil Engineering Practice and Research, 7, 9-17.

Hossain, S.B., Kabir, R., Shahjahan, M., Chowdhury, A., & Arafat, S.M.Y. (2017) Gap between Expectation and Convenience of Open Access Public Toilets in Dhaka: A Cross Sectional Investigation. International Journal of Research & Methodology in Social Science, 3(1), 53-61.

Hridulaa, A. (2017). Ending the public toilet crisis in Dhaka. Dhaka : BRAC. Media.

ICDDRB, WaterAid Bangladesh (2014). Bangladesh national hygiene baseline survey. WaterAid Bangladesh, Dhaka: Bangladesh.

Koskinen, I.K., & Frens, J.W. (2017) Research prototypes. Archives of Design Research, 30(3), 5-14.

Mahmud, A. (2017). Gender Responsive City Structure. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka : Action Aid. Retrieved from https://actionaidbd.org/storage/app/media//gender_responsive_city_structure.pdf

Malik, S. November 19, 2018 Tackling Toilet Troubles! s.l.: World Toilet Day 2018 Initiative by Water Aid and Daily Star.

Mujeri, M.K., & Mujeri, N. (2020). Social and Climate Change Vulnerability. Palgrave Studies in Economic History. s.l. : Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Parvin, M. (2018). Why we add Public Toilet in the Bangladesh map Dhaka : Local Guides Connect.

Rahman, M.M., Ali, M.A., Parvez, A., Shahriar, M., Rahman, T., & Shameem, D. (2019). Knowledge and Practice of Personal Hygiene among Primary School Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Reasearch, 11(9),

-3144.

Ramster, G., & Bichard, J.-A. (2011). Publicly Accessible Toilets: An Inclusive Design Guide. London: Royal College of Art.

Roy, M.K., & Sarker, G.C. (2006). Rural and urban Migration: The Role of Secondary Cities (Report). s.l. : The Daily Bangladesh Observer.

Sakkhor, A.N.H. (2018). Living Condition: A Case From Developing Country Bangladesh. Karlskrona, Sweden: Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Spatial Planning, 2017-2018. Master’s Thesis in Spatial Planning with an Emphasis of Sustainable Urban Planning. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1215214/FULLTEXT02

Sanyal, P.R. (November 05, 2016). Bangladesh needs to talk about public toilets. Retrieved form https://www.thethirdpole.net/2016/11/15/we-need-to-talk-aboutpublic-toilets/

Sapienza, S., Sawyer, J., & Sawyer, K.K. (2010). Dhaka’s Challenge: A Megacity Struggles with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Pulitzercenter. Retrieved from https://pulitzercenter.org/projects/dhakas-challengemegacity-struggles-water-sanitation-and-hygiene

Shafi, S.A., Imam, A.M., Opel, A., & Islam, M.K. July 09, 2011 Making public toilets work : An assessment of public toilets in Dhaka city. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-193444

Sharp, J., Pollock, V., & Paddison, R. (2005). Just art for a just city: Public art and social inclusion in urban regeneration. Urban Studies, 42(5–6), 1001–1023. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980500106963

Shishir, N.N. (November 19, 2019). Public Toilets of Dhakas. The Business Standard. Retrieved from https://www.tbsnews.net/feature/public-toilets-dhaka

Shovon, F.R. (May 16, 2019). Are Dhaka’s public toilets for everyone? Dhaka Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/dhaka/2019/05/16/are-dhaka-s-public-toilets-for-everyone

The World Bank (2007). Dhaka: Improving Living Conditions for the Urban Poor. Retrieved from https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/938981468013830990/pdf/404240BD0Dhaka10ALSO03582401PUBLIC1.pdf

Ullah, A. (March 11, 2018). Modern public toilets make city smarter. Daily Sun. Retrieved from https://www.daily-sun.com/arcprint/details/294414/Modernpublic-toiletsmake-city-smarter/2018-03-11

United News of Bangladesh (2019). Dhaka to get more Modern Public Toilets: Mayors. Dhaka : NEWAGE Bangladesh.

WaterAid Bangladesh (n.d.). WASH Matters (Policy and Practise) - The Crisis. WaterAid. Retrived from https://www.wateraid.org/bd/the-crisis

WELLS (2020). WELLS, Precast Innovators. https://www.wellsconcrete.com/

WSUP (2017). Water & Sanitation For The Urban Poor. Retrieved from https://www.wsup.com/where-wework/bangladesh/

Yang, M.C. (2005). A study of prototypes, design activity, and design outcome. Design Studies, 26(6), 649-669.

Downloads

Published

2021-07-13

How to Cite

Hasan, S. F., & Rahman, F. (2021). Re Thinking the Public Toilet of Dhaka City: An Adaptable Prototype Design Solution to Improve the Existing Situation. Creative Space, 9(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.15415/cs.2021.91001

Issue

Section

Articles